The Development of thinking in preschool age
Child 3-6 years engaged in different activities that enrich its knowledge about objects and their properties. The preschooler increasingly independently selects and applies various methods and techniques of solving the problems facing practical problems. A special study of the mentality of a preschooler showed that at this age stage is the restructuring of relations practical steps to mental. Along with the transition of the process of thinking in the “internal plan” (interiorization) the rearrangement practice. At 3-6 year olds make of planar figures on the background (garden, lawn, room) picture (A. A. Lublin, Z. S. Reshko), to repair the spoiled toy (A. A. Lublin, Z. A. Hankova), to choose a weapon to get candy from the vase (I. M. Zhukov), or to keep on the table with the inclined surface of the ball (A. A. Weiger), the researchers obtained data allow to draw some General conclusions.
Younger preschoolers (3-4 years) do not always use the action adequate to the task . The children immediately begin to effective solution of the problem, sometimes making random, “fumbling” of the sample; moving figures on the background and connect them receive unexpected for themselves combinations. It was therefore with great surprise and pleasure three-year-old exclaims: “Look what happened!” Apparently, the child took the task to arrange the figures in the painting in a very General form. Solving this task, the younger children are usually not pre-parses it and goes straight to the solution by any junction shapes or parts of the subject. A critical attitude to the results obtained in this case is absent.
Not seeing existent relations (in particular, spatial) and grossly violating them, three-, four-year-olds are sometimes completely meaningless picture. Positioning figures on the background of the glade, the children of younger preschool age calmly placed the figure of the horse upside down (in relation to the trees on the background), and the bottom, also head down, have a rider. The child contentedly concludes that he did a good kartinochka, “as uncle riding a horse”.
Thus, specifically this task children of this age decide projavitelnyi actions, and the result interpreted only after the completion of the action.
In children of pre-school age comprehension tasks and ways of its decision are made in the process steps. The speech of five-, six-year-old children usually serves as a support, or accompaniment, the action performed (L. S. Vygotsky). Placing figures on the background, the girl (5-6 l) says: “This uncle came home, and the lady meets him here. no, she’s preparing dinner, and he hasn’t come yet, and this (girl) sits there and yells, “Daddy’s home”. Such a speech-the accompaniment is directly related to the actual operation. However, the subject of the action can perform different function in a practical problem the action of a child 1.
In children of preschool age (6-7 l) again change the relationship of sensory perception, action and speech. Now, just looking at the pictures, the child mentally combines them. He can, without resorting to the practical manipulation of figures, to solve the mind the problem. Not beginning to act, he says, “I will lay down like a man pushing a cart and the cart is a suitcase” or: “I will lay down as two soldiers riding each other’s horses”. After this solution was found in the mind, the child quickly figures has on a specific background. His story after the performed actions are essentially repeats what he said in the very beginning of the experiment. Already added nothing to the deci-tion tasks.
1 Cm. about it in Chapter XI of “the Speech”.
Contrary to widely held in psychology views, according to which the child supposedly unavailable the search and the establishment of semantic, in particular causal dependencies, psychologists in a number of studies have shown that even four-year-olds trying to find the cause of such phenomena, which they understand effective and affordable solution.
Having a toy that suddenly (at the request of the experimenter) breaks down, three-, four-year-olds usually are not looking for the cause of failure. They are trying to restore the activity toys direct way: shake the clown who refuses to bend, banging them on the table and doing many of the same erratic action. Five-, six-year-old start to look at the toy, trying to push or pull styptic, turn the wheels, trying to find the cause of idle toys.
More targeted actions become older preschoolers who are not getting to the manipulations, carefully examine the toy and resorted to action only after it is already found in the mind of the decision. Restructuring actions and its transformation from chaotic, in search of a reasonable, distressed describes the change of the whole mental activity of the child.
However, the improvement of the child’s thinking is not a direct consequence of the age of the child. The edit action is also observed in four children, if an adult, clarifying a task, asks, for example, that interferes with the action of the toy, i.e., directs the thought of the child to find reasons for inaction toys. Clarifying objectives sharpens the entire thought process, giving it the character of an organized, truly problematic activity.
Understanding of the problem and identification are required to meet conditions allows six-, seven year old children repeatedly and confidently repeat the appropriate steps at each new failure toys and confidently used to justify actions. The children already know what to do and why, i.e. why the toy is deteriorated. Awareness of decision allows the child to successfully apply known techniques to new and homogeneous problems.
At preschool age continues the development of effective forms of thinking . It does not disappear, and improved, moving to a higher level, which is characterized by the following features.
1. The senior preschool children effective problem solving precedes her mental decision given in a verbal form.
2. In connection with this change and the entity performed by the child. Three children only clear end goal that should be achieved (must be pulled out of high vessel candy, to fix the game), but they do not see the conditions of this task. Therefore, their actions have randomly-probually character. Clarification of the task makes the actions of problem, search. The older preschoolers such probovatel-ing action is rolled, lose their problematic nature. They become the Executive, because the problem is solved by the child in mind, i.e. verbal way, before the action starts.
3. In accordance with the changes but also changes the nature of the thinking process. Effective it becomes verbal, planning, critical.
4. However, effective form of thinking is not discarded, not dies, it remains as if in reserve, and when confronted with new mental challenges a child again resorts to effective way to solve them.
These changes in the process of thinking is due,
– first, expanding practice of the child, the more complete and diverse learning experiences adults;
– secondly, increasing in accordance with the capacity needs of the child, encouraging him to the formulation and solution of new, more varied and complex tasks;
– thirdly, the growing importance of speech.
The assimilation of the child’s vocabulary and grammatical structure of speech allows him not only to understand the task itself, but also to realize how to resolve it. By engaging in practical activity of the child, it is, even at first only audible from inside rebuilds the process of his thinking, transforming practice in the complicated structure of mental action. Such mental action unfolds at the level of generalized knowledge and by using more generalized ways of operating them.